The federal polity, in other words, provides a constitutional device for bringing unity in diversity and for the achievement of common national goals. A federal government exists when the powers of the government for a community are divided substantially according to a principle that there is a single independent authority for the whole area in respect of some matters and there are independent regional authorities for other matters, each set of authorities being co-ordinate to and subordinate to the others within its own sphere.
The Constitution of India has adopted federal features; though it does not, in fact, claim that it establishes a federation.
The following provision of Indian constitution makes it unitary Article I of the Constitution describes India as a ‘Union of States’, which implies two things: firstly, it is not the result of an agreement among the States and secondly, the States have no freedom to secede or separate from the Union.
Besides, the Constitution of the Union and the States is a single framework from which neither can get out and within which they must function.
It has been the matter of debate among the scholars that whether the constitution of India is completely federal or unitary in nature.
But actually Indian constitution contains both features of a federal constitution and unitary constitution.
The procedure of amending the Constitution in a federal system is normally rigid.
Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.
What feature of Indian constitution makes it federal or what features makes it unitary.
In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states.
The States cannot propose amendments to, the Constitution.
In other words, Governor is the agent of the Centre in the States.
The working of Indian federal system clearly reveals that the Governor has acted more as centre’s representative than as the head of the State.
It can declare a law as unconstitutional, if it contravenes any provision of the Constitution.