There is therefore a similarity between the Australian Kobong and the American totem (Grey, 1841).This system reflects the belief of a group of persons regarded as united by a bond of kinship real or fictitious.The Bear Clan is the most important of the Hopi Indians, the totem of the Ouataouaks, with bear tribes in California, among the Huron, Iroquoi, and Ute of Colorado; the beaver is the totem of the Cayuse, Creek, Onondaga, Seneca, and Shuswop; the buffalo the totem of the Plains Indians such as Cree, Pawnee, Sioux, and the Mandan Okapi; and there are also deer tribes and clans (Cooper, 1995).Among the Australian Aborigines totemism is called Kobong and they have many totem clans including Dingo and Water-Hen.“Man ascends from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom.” Frederick Engels “Women are the mothers of humanity, do not let us ever forget that or underemphasise its importance. 2 (g) Radcliffe-Brown and British Social Anthropology 2 (h) Levi-Strauss 3. Prolegomena The basic feature of primitive society is totemism “…or the system of totem and taboo.” (Reed, 1954).What mothers are to their children, so will man be to man.” M. Totemism in Evolutionary Perspective 3 (a) Women’s Evolution and Mitochondrial Eve 3 (b) Prehistory 4. (b) Anthropomorphism 10 Totemism, Magic, Ritual, and Art 10 (a) Magic 10 (b) Ritual, Symbolism and Rites de Passage 10 (c) Shamanism 10 (d) Hunting and Fertility Magic 10 (e) Shamanism and Prehistoric Art 10 (f) Totemism and Prehistoric Art 11. Totemism has been described as a magico-religious system characteristic of tribal society (Thomson, 1978) that provides a group with an identity that depends upon a certain intimate and exclusive relationship towards a particular animal or plant (Lewis, 1969), and therefore for many is “…both a religious and a social system.” (Stocking, 1995).
The system has been described as mutually beneficent (Stocking, 1995), comprising three major forms, the individual, the sex-group, and the clan which was “…a body of men and women who call themselves by the name of the totem, believe themselves to be of one blood, descendants of a common ancestor (the totem creature), and are bound together by common obligations to each other by a common faith in the totem.” (Frazer, 1910).1856) who wrote a ‘History of the Objibway Indians.’ Where he described toodaims or tribes but today are now regarded as clans or gens.An Ottawa Indian called Francis Assikinack spoke of ododam and Abbe Thevenal stated the word is actually ote and means ‘family’ or ‘tribe’ with the possessive otem meaning group. Totem therefore means tribe or group and as such the word speaks for itself and does not mean plant or animal but tribe.That which has been described as the ‘riddle of totemism’ is an institution that has fascinated scholars ever since its wide distribution became known (Hays, 1964).Various definitions have been offered over time and include a “…special class of animals or plants to which a certain group of people pay reverence, assuming a mysterious affinity between themselves and the animal or plant.” (Karsten, 1935), and “…a class of material objects which people regard with superstitious respect, believing that there exists an intimate and altogether special relation with every member of the class.” (Frazer, 1910).An essay on the meaning, origin, history and mythology of totemism and totemistic society from prehistoric times to its survivals in modern folklore. No, it is bought with the price of all that man hath.” William Blake “Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please, they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.” Karl Marx “We should all want to help one another: human beings are like that. Totemism and Academic Tradition 2 (a) Mc Lennan, Tylor, Lang 2 (b) Robertson Smith 2 (c) Frazer 2 (d) Spencer and Gillen.